11.1 Students analyze the significant events in the founding
of the nation and its attempts to realize the philosophy of government described in the Declaration of Independence.
1. Describe the Enlightenment and the rise of democratic ideas as the
context in which the nation was founded.
2. Analyze the ideological origins of the American Revolution, the Founding
Fathers’ philosophy of divinely bestowed unalienable natural rights, the debates on the drafting and ratification of
the Constitution, and the addition of the Bill of Rights.
3. Understand the history of the Constitution after 1787 with emphasis
versus state authority and growing democratization.
4. Examine the effects of the Civil War and Reconstruction and of the
industrial revolution, including demographic shifts and the emergence in the late nineteenth century of the United States as a world power.
11.2 Students analyze the relationship among the rise of industrialization,
large scale rural-to-urban migration, and massive immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe.
1. Know the effects of industrialization on living and working conditions, including
portrayal of working conditions and food safety in Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle.
2. Describe the changing landscape, including the growth of cities linked by industry
and trade, and the development of cities divided according to race, ethnicity, and class.
3. Trace the effect of the Americanization movement.
4. Analyze the effect of urban political machines and responses to them by immigrants
and middle-class reformers.
5. Discuss corporate mergers that produced trusts and cartels and the economic and political
policies of industrial leaders.
6. Trace the economic development of the United States and its emergence as a major industrial
power, including its gains from trade and the advantages of its physical geography.
7. Analyze the similarities and differences between the ideologies of Social Darwinism
and Social Gospel (e.g., using biographies of William Graham Sumner, Billy Sunday, Dwight L. Moody).
8. Examine the effect of political programs and activities of Populists.
9. Understand the effect of political programs and activities of the Progressives (e.g.,
federal regulation of railroad transport, Children’s Bureau, the Sixteenth Amendment, Theodore Roosevelt, Hiram Johnson).
11.3 Students analyze the role religion played in the founding of America, its
lasting moral, social, and political impacts, and issues regarding religious
1. Describe the contributions of various religious groups to American civic principles
and social reform movements (e.g., civil and human rights, individual responsibility and the work ethic, antimonarchy and
self-rule, worker protection, family-centered communities).
2. Analyze the great religious revivals and the leaders involved in them, including
the First Great Awakening, the Second Great Awakening, the Civil War revivals, the Social Gospel Movement, the rise of Christian
liberal theology in the nineteenth century, the impact of the Second Vatican Council, and the rise of Christian fundamentalism
in current times.
3. Cite incidences of religious intolerance in the United States (e.g., persecution of Mormons,
anti-Catholic sentiment, anti-Semitism).
4. Discuss the expanding religious pluralism in the United States and California that resulted from large-scale
immigration in the twentieth century.
5. Describe the principles of religious liberty found in the Establishment and Free
Exercise clauses of the First Amendment, including the debate on the issue of separation
of church and state.
11.4 Students trace the rise of the United States to its role as a world power in
the twentieth century.
1. List the purpose and the effects of the Open Door policy.
2. Describe the Spanish-American War and U.S. expansion in the South Pacific.
3. Discuss America’s role in the Panama Revolution
and the building of the Panama Canal.
4. Explain Theodore Roosevelt’s Big Stick diplomacy, William Taft뭩 Dollar
Diplomacy, and Woodrow Wilson’s Moral Diplomacy, drawing on relevant speeches.
5. Analyze the political, economic, and social ramifications of World War I on the home
6. Trace the declining role of Great Britain and the expanding role of the
States in world affairs after World War II.
11.5 Students analyze the major political, social, economic, technological,
cultural developments of the 1920s.
1. Discuss the policies of Presidents Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge, and Herbert Hoover.
2. Analyze the international and domestic events, interests, and philosophies that
prompted attacks on civil liberties, including the Palmer Raids, Marcus Garvey’s
“back-to-Africa” movement, the Ku Klux Klan, and
immigration quotas and the
responses of organizations such as the American Civil Liberties Union, the National
Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and the Anti-Defamation League to those attacks.
3. Examine the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution and the
Volstead Act (Prohibition).
4. Analyze the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment and the changing role of women in
5. Describe the Harlem Renaissance and new trends in literature, music, and art, with
special attention to the work of writers (e.g., Zora Neale Hurston, Langston Hughes).
6. Trace the growth and effects of radio and movies and their role in the worldwide
diffusion of popular culture.
7. Discuss the rise of mass production techniques, the growth of cities, the impact
of new technologies (e.g., the automobile, electricity), and the resulting prosperity and effect on the American landscape.
11.6 Students analyze the different explanations for the Great Depression
and how the New Deal fundamentally changed the role of the federal government.
1. Describe the monetary issues of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
that gave rise to the establishment of the Federal Reserve and the weaknesses in key sectors of the economy in the late 1920s.
2. Understand the explanations of the principal causes of the Great Depression and the
steps taken by the Federal Reserve, Congress, and Presidents Herbert Hoover and Franklin Delano Roosevelt to combat the economic
3. Discuss the human toll of the Depression, natural disasters, and unwise agricultural
practices and their effects on the depopulation of rural regions and on political movements of the left and right, with particular
attention to the Dust Bowl refugees and their social and economic impacts in California.
4. Analyze the effects of and the controversies arising from New Deal economic policies
and the expanded role of the federal government in society and the economy since the 1930s (e.g., Works Progress Administration,
Social Security, National Labor Relations Board, farm programs, regional development policies, and energy development projects
such as the Tennessee Valley Authority, California Central Valley Project, and Bonneville Dam).
5. Trace the advances and retreats of organized labor, from the creation of the American
Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations to current issues of a postindustrial, multinational economy,
including the United Farm Workers in California.
11.7 Students analyze America’s
participation in World War II.
1. Examine the origins of American involvement in the war, with an emphasis on the events
that precipitated the attack on Pearl Harbor.
2. Explain U.S. and Allied wartime strategy, including the major
battles of Midway, Normandy, Iwo
Okinawa, and the Battle of the Bulge.
3. Identify the roles and sacrifices of individual American soldiers, as well as the
unique contributions of the special fighting forces (e.g., the Tuskegee Airmen, the
442nd Regimental Combat team, the Navajo Code Talkers).
4. Analyze Roosevelt’s foreign policy during World War II (e.g., Four Freedoms
5. Discuss the constitutional issues and impact of events on the U.S. home front, including the internment
of Japanese Americans (e.g., Fred
Korematsu v. United States of America) and the restrictions on German and Italian resident aliens;
the response of the administration to Hitler뭩 atrocities against Jews and other groups; the roles of women in military
production; and the roles and growing political demands of African Americans.
6. Describe major developments in aviation, weaponry, communication, and medicine and
the war’s impact on the location of American industry and use of resources.
7. Discuss the decision to drop atomic bombs and the consequences of the decision (Hiroshima and Nagasaki).
8. Analyze the effect of massive aid given to Western Europe under the Marshall Plan to rebuild itself after
the war and the importance of a rebuilt Europe to the U.S. economy.
11.8 Students analyze the economic boom and social transformation of post-World
War II America.
1. Trace the growth of service sector, white collar, and professional sector jobs in
business and government.
2. Describe the significance of Mexican immigration and its relationship to the agricultural
economy, especially in California.
3. Examine Truman-s labor policy and congressional reaction to it.
4. Analyze new federal government spending on defense, welfare, interest on the
national debt, and federal and state spending on education, including the California
5. Describe the increased powers of the presidency in response to the Great Depression,
World War II, and the Cold War.
6. Discuss the diverse environmental regions of North America, their relationship to local economies, and the
origins and prospects of environmental problems in those regions.
7. Describe the effects on society and the economy of technological developments since
1945, including the computer revolution, changes in communication, advances in medicine, and improvements in agricultural
8. Discuss forms of popular culture, with emphasis on their origins and geographic diffusion
(e.g., jazz and other forms of popular music, professional sports, architectural and artistic styles).
11.9 Students analyze U.S. foreign policy since World War II.
1. Discuss the establishment of the United Nations and International Declaration of
Human Rights, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and their importance
in shaping modern Europe and maintaining peace and international
2. Understand the role of military alliances, including NATO and SEATO, in deterring
communist aggression and maintaining security during the Cold War.
3. Trace the origins and geopolitical consequences (foreign and domestic) of the Cold
War and containment policy, including the following:
era of McCarthyism, instances of domestic Communism (e.g., Alger Hiss) and blacklisting
and the Cuban Missile Crisis
testing in the American West, the “mutual assured destruction” doctrine, and disarmament policies
4. List the effects of foreign policy on domestic policies and vice versa (e.g., protests
during the war in Vietnam, the “nuclear freeze” movement).
5. Analyze the role of the Reagan administration and other factors in the victory of
the West in the Cold War.
6. Describe U.S. Middle East policy and its strategic, political, and economic interests,
including those related to the Gulf War.
7. Examine relations between the United States and Mexico in the twentieth century, including
key economic, political, immigration, and environmental issues.
11.10 Students analyze the development of federal civil rights and voting
1. Explain how demands of African Americans helped produce a stimulus for civil rights,
including President Roosevelt’s ban on racial discrimination in defense industries in 1941, and how African Americans’
service in World War II produced a stimulus for President Truman’s decision to end segregation in the armed forces
2. Examine and analyze the key events, policies, and court cases in the evolution of
civil rights, including Dred
Scott v. Sandford, Plessy v. Ferguson, Brown v. Board of Education, Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, and California Proposition 209.
3. Describe the collaboration on legal strategy between African American and white civil
rights lawyers to end racial segregation in higher education.
4. Examine the roles of civil rights advocates (e.g., A. Philip Randolph, Martin Luther
King, Jr., Malcom X, Thurgood Marshall, James Farmer, Rosa Parks), including the significance of Martin Luther King, Jr.’s
“Letter from Birmingham Jail” and “I Have a Dream” speech.
5. Discuss the diffusion of the civil rights movement of African Americans from the
churches of the rural South and the urban North, including the resistance to racial desegregation in Little Rock and Birmingham,
and how the advances influenced the agendas, strategies, and effectiveness of the quests of American Indians, Asian Americans,
and Hispanic Americans for civil rights and equal opportunities.
6. Analyze the passage and effects of civil rights and voting rights legislation (e.g.,
1964 Civil Rights Act, Voting Rights Act of 1965) and the Twenty-Fourth Amendment, with an emphasis on equality of access
to education and to the political process.
7. Analyze the women’s rights movement from the era of Elizabeth Stanton and Susan Anthony
and the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the movement launched in the 1960s, including differing perspectives on the
roles of women.
11.11 Students analyze the major social problems and domestic policy issues
in contemporary American society.
1. Discuss the reasons for the nation’s changing immigration policy, with emphasis on how
the Immigration Act of 1965 and successor acts have transformed American society.
2. Discuss the significant domestic policy speeches of Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy,
Johnson, Nixon, Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton (e.g., with regard to education, civil rights, economic policy, environmental
3. Describe the changing roles of women in society as reflected in the entry of more
women into the labor force and the changing family structure.
4. Explain the constitutional crisis originating from the Watergate scandal.
5. Trace the impact of, need for, and controversies associated with environmental
conservation, expansion of the national park system, and the development of environmental
protection laws, with particular attention to the interaction between
environmental protection advocates and property rights advocates.
6. Analyze the persistence of poverty and how different analyses of this issue influence
welfare reform, health insurance reform, and other social policies.
7. Explain how the federal, state, and local governments have responded to demographic
and social changes such as population shifts to the suburbs, racial concentrations in the cities, Frostbelt-to-Sunbelt migration, international migration,
decline of family farms, increases in out-of-wedlock births, and drug abuse.